With the meeting of President Trump and Kim Jong-un of North Korea on Tuesday in Singapore, human rights groups are watching for Mr. Trump to bring up North Korea’s widespread crimes against humanity.

周二,美国总统特朗普和朝鲜领导人金正恩(Kim Jong-un)在新加坡会面。人权组织期望特朗普提及朝鲜普遍存在的反人类罪行。

Mr. Kim rules with extreme brutality, making his nation among the worst human rights violators in the world.

金正恩的统治极为残暴,使得朝鲜成为世界上人权侵犯最严重的国家之一。

In North Korea, these crimes “entail extermination, murder, enslavement, torture, imprisonment, rape, forced abortions and other sexual violence, persecution on political, religious, racial and gender grounds, the forcible transfer of populations, the enforced disappearance of persons and the inhumane act of knowingly causing prolonged starvation,” concluded a 2014 United Nations report that examined North Korea.

联合国2014年调查朝鲜的一份报告得出这样的结论:朝鲜侵犯人权的罪行包括“灭绝、谋杀、奴役、酷刑、监禁、强奸、强迫堕胎等性暴力,政治、宗教、种族和性别迫害、强行迁移人口、强制人员失踪,及故意造成长时间饥荒的不人道行为”。

Here are some of the atrocities that have happened there.

以下是这里曾发生的暴行。

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A network of prison gulags

劳改营网络

Many North Koreans live in fear. That is by design, and it is reinforced by the country’s ruthless police state.

许多朝鲜人生活在恐惧之中。这是精心设计的,而且得到了这个国家残酷的警察系统的强化

People accused of political crimes are arrested and sentenced to prison camps without a trial, while their families are often kept in the dark about their whereabouts. Up to 120,000 inmates were in the country’s four major political prisons in 2014 and were subjected to gruesome conditions, according to the United Nations report.

被控犯有政治罪行的人遭到逮捕,不经审判就被判在劳改营监禁,他们的家人往往对他们的下落一无所知。根据联合国的那份报告,2014年,多达12万名囚犯被关押在该国的四个主要的政治监狱中,生活条件十分恶劣。

Prisoners are starved, forced to work, tortured and raped. Reproductive rights are denied through forced abortion and infanticide. Some are executed — sometimes in public. Hundreds of thousands of political prisoners have died in the camps over the past 50 years, the United Nations report found.

囚犯们挨饿,被迫工作,遭受酷刑和强奸。通过被迫堕胎和杀婴剥夺生育权。有些人被处决,有时是公开处决。联合国的这份报告发现,在过去的50年里,数十万名政治犯在劳改营中丧生。

In addition to the political camps, North Korea also operates prisons for those accused of ordinary crimes. Some prisons are short-term labor camps. Others hold prisoners who face long-term torture, starvation and suffering.

除了政治犯劳改营,朝鲜还为那些被控犯下普通罪行的人设立了监狱。有些是短期劳改营。还有些监狱则是关押面临长期酷刑、饥饿和折磨的囚犯。

Mr. Kim’s enemies, and family, have been executed

金正恩处决了自己的敌人和家人

Since Mr. Kim assumed power in 2011, taking over from his father, Kim Jong-il, he has consolidated his power through executions. In the first six years as leader, he has ordered the executions of at least 340 people, according to the Institute for National Security Strategy.

自从金正恩2011年从父亲金正日(Kim Jong-il)手中接过政权以来,他通过处决巩固了自己的权力。根据国家安全战略研究所(Institute for National Security Strategy)的数据,在担任领导人的前六年里,金正恩至少下令处决了340人。

In 2016, Kim Yong-jin, the deputy premier for education, was killed in front of a firing squad after showing “disrespectful posture” in a meeting. Hyon Yong-chol, a general over the armed forces, fell asleep in a meeting. He was executed with an antiaircraft gun.

2016年,负责教育的副总理金勇进(Kim Yong-jin)在一次会议上表现出“不尊重的姿态”,而被枪决。玄永哲(Hyon Yong-chol)曾是朝鲜军队的一名将领,他在一次会议上睡着了。他遭到了炮决。

去年,金正恩的哥哥金正男在吉隆坡机场被毒死。
去年,金正恩的哥哥金正男在吉隆坡机场被毒死。 Shizuo Kambayashi/Associated Press

Family is also not off limits. One of Mr. Kim’s uncles, Jang Song-thaek, was convicted of treason. He was then executed with antiaircraft machine guns, and his body incinerated with flamethrowers.

他的家人也未能幸免。金正恩的姑父张成泽(Jang Song-thaek)被判犯有叛国罪。随后,他遭到高射机枪处决,他的尸体被火焰喷射器焚毁。

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Kim Jong-nam, the estranged brother of the North Korean leader, was killed last year in a very public way: near a check-in counter at Kuala Lumpur International Airport in Malaysia. Two women were seen on security cameras walking up to him and rubbing a substance on his face — a chemical warfare agent known as VX, the United States later determined.

去年,与这位朝鲜领导人关系疏远的兄长金正男(Kim Jong-nam)在马来西亚吉隆坡国际机场的一个值机柜台附近被公然杀害。监控录像显示,两名女性走近他,往他脸上抹了一种东西。美国后来断定,那是一种名为VX的军用化学毒剂。

Kim Jong-nam was dead within minutes. The women were arrested, but the United States said evidence showed that North Korea was responsible for the attack.

金正男在几分钟后死亡。那两名女性被逮捕,但美国表示,有证据表明,朝鲜策划了这次攻击。

‘An all-encompassing indoctrination machine’

“包罗万象的洗脑机器”

Often the first human rights violations Westerners ascribe to North Korea, aside from preventing North Koreans from leaving the country, are the lengths it takes to indoctrinate its citizens.

西方人想到朝鲜侵犯人权的行为时,首先想到的除了阻止朝鲜人民离开这个国家外,通常就是对朝鲜公民的深度洗脑。

According to the United Nations report, which was prepared by its Commission of Inquiry and is more than 300 pages long, North Korea “operates an all-encompassing indoctrination machine that takes root from childhood to propagate an official personality cult and to manufacture absolute obedience” to Mr. Kim.

根据联合国的那份报告——这份长达300多页的报告是由联合国的调查委员会撰写——朝鲜“运行着一个包罗万象的洗脑机器,从童年时代就开始灌输官方的个人崇拜,确保对金正恩的绝对服从”。

Independent thought is bred out and propaganda glorifying the state is plentiful, the report said, as is propaganda intended to “incite nationalistic hatred toward official enemies” like Japan and the United States.

该报告称,独立思想被扼杀,充满美化这个国家以及“煽动民族仇恨”的宣传,包括针对日本和美国等官方敌人。

Christianity is deemed a ‘serious threat’

基督教被视为“严重的威胁”。

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North Korea considers the spread of most religions dangerous, but Christianity is considered a “particularly serious threat” because it “provides a platform for social and political organization and interaction outside the realm of the State,” according to the United Nations report.

联合国的报告显示,朝鲜认为大部分宗教的传播都是危险的,但基督教被认为是“特别严重的威胁”,因为它“为国家之外的社会和政治组织以及互动提供了一个平台”。

Christians are barred from practicing their religion, and those caught doing so are “subject to severe punishments,” the report found. North Korean leaders also conflate Christians with those detained in prison camps, those who try to flee and “others considered to introduce subversive influences,” the report stated.

报告发现,基督徒被禁止从事宗教活动,被发现举行基督教仪式的人会受到“严厉惩罚”。报告称,朝鲜领导人还把基督徒同关押在监狱集中营的人、企图逃离该国的人和“被认为有颠覆影响的其他人”列为同一类人。

In interviews with The New York Times in 2012, four North Koreans said that they had been warned that the gulag awaited those who spoke to journalists or Christian missionaries. “If the government finds out I am reading the Bible, I’m dead,” one woman said.

在2012年接受《纽约时报》的采访时,四名朝鲜人说,有人警告他们,集中营在等着那些和记者或基督教传教士说话的人。“如果政府发现我在读《圣经》,我就死定了,”一名女子说。

In its 2018 World Watch List, the Christian group Open Doors ranked North Korea the worst nation in the world for Christians, and in a statement last week, the group called on Christians to take part in 24 hours of prayer and fasting on Monday ahead of the meeting between Mr. Trump and Mr. Kim.

基督教团体“敞开的门”(Open Doors)在2018年的全球守望名单(World Watch List)中,将朝鲜列为全世界基督徒境遇最恶劣的国家。在上周在一份声明中,该组织呼吁基督徒在“特金会”召开前的周一祷告和禁食24小时。

‘Deliberate starvation’ as a play for power

把“故意让人挨饿”当作权力游戏

Two million to 3 million people were believed to have died during an extended famine in North Korea in the 1990s, The New York Times reported in 1999, around when the country began to recover.

《纽约时报》在1999年报道,朝鲜90年代爆发的漫长饥荒期间,据信有200万到300万人死亡。正是在1999年前后,朝鲜开始复苏。

At the time, North Korea used food as a tool to enforce political loyalty, prioritizing its distribution based on who was most useful to the nation’s political system, the United Nations report stated.

联合国的报告指出,当时,朝鲜将食物用作推行政治忠诚的重要手段,根据谁对国家政治制度最有用来确定分配的优先顺序。

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More recently, the inmate population in North Korea’s political prison camps has been culled through “deliberate starvation,” the report found, adding that suspects are also starved “to increase the pressure on them to confess and to incriminate other persons.”

报告发现,就在最近,朝鲜的政治监狱集中营里的囚犯会因为“故意使之挨饿”而被逐渐消灭。报告接着说,挨饿是故意施加于嫌疑人的,“目的是增加压力,迫使他们招供和牵连其他人”。

When the 2014 report was conducted, it found that hunger and malnutrition were still widespread problems among the general population, and deaths from starvation continued to be reported.

报告发现,在联合国撰写2014年的这份报告时,饥饿和营养不良现象在民众中依然相当普遍,仍然有关于饿死人情况的报告。

That prompted the United Nations commission to raise concerns that another mass starvation could occur. “Laws and policies that violate the right to adequate food and freedom from hunger remain in place,” the report said.

这促使该委员会对可能会再次发生大规模饥荒提出了担忧。报告写道,“侵犯充足食物权和免于饥饿权的法律和政策仍然存在。”