HONG KONG — A man in a white protective suit parked a dump truck at the edge of a dusty pit and unloaded a pile of pink carcasses. They tumbled to the ground just as a second truck arrived with another batch.
香港——一名身穿白色防护服的男子将一辆自卸车停在一个尘土飞扬的大坑边,卸下一堆粉红色的尸体。它们滚落在地上,这时载着另一批货的第二辆卡车也到了。
The scene at a Hong Kong landfill this week was part of a government effort to kill and dispose of 6,000 pigs from a slaughterhouse where one of them had been found to have African swine fever.
这是本周香港一个垃圾填埋场发生的一幕,是政府宰杀和处置一个屠宰场6000头生猪行动的一部分,之前那里有一头猪被发现感染非洲猪瘟。
It was the latest turn in an outbreak that has decimated pig herds in the Chinese mainland and rapidly spread elsewhere in Asia in recent months, and which experts say shows no sign of stopping — particularly since containing the disease is a challenge in a region where many producers are small-scale farmers.
近几个月来,中国大陆的猪瘟疫情造成大量生猪死亡,并迅速蔓延到亚洲其他地区,这是事态的最新发展。专家表示,它完全没有停止的迹象,尤其是在一个有很多饲养者都是小农户的地方,控制这种疾病就更加困难。
And because China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of pork, the mainland government’s move to cull more than a million pigs is now being felt across a sprawling global industry that includes truckers, pork dealers and soybean feed farmers.
由于中国是世界上最大的猪肉生产国和消费国,大陆政府扑杀逾100万头生猪的举措在包括卡车司机、猪肉经销商和大豆饲料农户在内的庞大全球行业引起了广泛关注。
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“The ripples of it will be felt everywhere,” Dirk Pfeiffer, a veterinary epidemiologist at the City University of Hong Kong who studies the disease, said of the African swine fever outbreak.
“它的影响将会无处不在,”香港城市大学(City University of Hong Kong)研究猪流感的兽医流行病学家迪尔克·法伊弗(Dirk Pfeiffer)在谈到非洲猪瘟疫情时表示。
The highly contagious virus, which affects pigs but not humans, has been found in hog farms around the world for years. But the current outbreak affects a region where pork is often the primary staple of local diets.
多年来,世界各地的养猪场都曾发现这种高度传染性的病毒。但当前疫情影响的是一个通常以猪肉作为主要肉食的地区。
[A vicious, untreatable killer leaves China guessingA vicious, untreatable killer leaves China guessing.]
The current outbreak was first reported in mainland China in August. Since then, the virus has spread to pig herds in every mainland Chinese province, as well as to Vietnam, Cambodia and Mongolia.
目前的疫情是去年8月在中国大陆首次报告的。从那时起,该病毒已经传播到中国大陆每个省份的猪群,以及越南、柬埔寨和蒙古。
Vietnam, one of the world’s largest pork producers, has culled nearly 90,000 pigs since February, according to figures published last week by the United Nations food agency. The country’s prime minister, Nguyen Xuan Phuc, recently called for “drastic measures” to stop the virus from spreading and even enlisted the military in the effort.
联合国粮农组织上周公布的数据显示,全球最大猪肉生产国之一的越南,自今年2月以来已宰杀了近9万头生猪。越南总理阮春福最近呼吁采取“严厉措施”阻止病毒传播,甚至动员了军队参与。
周二,在香港春秧街传统市场,几名肉贩表示,他们最近几天已经停止销售猪肉。
周二,在香港春秧街传统市场,几名肉贩表示,他们最近几天已经停止销售猪肉。 Lam Yik Fei for The New York Times
“We should combat the epidemic as if we are fighting against the enemy,” Mr. Phuc was quoted as saying in March by the country’s state-run news media.
“我们要像抗击敌人一样抗击疫情,”越南官方新闻媒体今年3月引用阮春福的话说。
Professor Pfeiffer said that while the spread of the disease into Vietnam was worrying, his primary concern was how the Chinese authorities were handling the outbreak because the scale of that country’s pork industry makes it the “Himalayas of pigs.”
法伊弗说,虽然这种疾病在越南的传播令人担忧,但他最担心的是中国当局如何应对疫情,因为该国猪肉行业的规模极为庞大,堪称“猪的喜马拉雅山”。
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About 700 million hogs were slaughtered in China last year, far more than in any other country. Analysts at Rabobank, a Dutch lender, predicted last month that China’s total would fall by about 150 million to 200 million this year because of deaths from infection or culling.
去年中国宰杀了大约7亿头生猪,远远超过其他国家。荷兰合作银行(Rabobank)分析师上月预测,由于感染或扑杀导致的死亡,中国今年的猪肉存栏总数将减少1.5亿至2亿头
China’s tendency to hush up disease outbreaks has engendered widespread public distrust, and many farmers and livestock analysts say they assume the disease has infected more pigs, in more places, than officials have publicly acknowledged.
中国喜欢隐瞒疫情的做法引发了公众的普遍不信任,许多农民和牲畜分析师说,他们认为,这种疾病在更多地方感染了更多的猪,比官方公开承认的数字要高。
Chinese companies are now rolling out facial and voice recognition software on pig farms and other unproven ways to save the animals from disease. The government has also bought frozen pork to build up its strategic reserve.
中国企业目前正在养猪场推出面部和语音识别软件,以及其他未经证实的方法,希望拯救这些动物免于疾病。政府还购买冷冻猪肉以建立战略储备。
Meanwhile, more than a billion pork lovers in China and neighboring countries are facing tightening supplies. In April, a global meat price index rose by 3 percent compared with a month earlier, as demand for imported pork surged in Asia, particularly China, the United Nations food agency reported.
与此同时,中国及其周边国家超过10亿的猪肉爱好者正面临着供应紧张的局面。根据联合国食品机构的报告,由于亚洲国家特别是中国对进口猪肉的需求猛增,4月份全球肉类价格指数较前一个月环比上涨3%。
Hong Kong, a semiautonomous Chinese territory, confirmed its first case of African swine fever last week at the Sheung Shui Slaughterhouse, which gets its pigs from the Chinese mainland. Professor Pfeiffer said that the facility gets about 4,000 pigs a day from the Chinese mainland, and another 250 to 300 from local farmers.
半自治的中国领土香港上周在上水屠房查出首例非洲猪瘟,这里的猪来自中国大陆。法伊弗说,这里每天有大约4000头猪来自中国大陆,另有250至300头来自本地养殖户。
The Hong Kong authorities promptly cut hog imports from the mainland and ordered the culling of all 6,000 of the Sheung Shui facility’s pigs. They also closed down another major slaughterhouse and warned of short-term pork shortages.
香港当局立即削减了从大陆进口生猪的数量,并下令扑杀上水屠房的全部6000头生猪。他们还关闭了另一家大型屠宰场,并发出短期内可能出现猪肉短缺的警告。
At the Chun Yuen Street wet market in Hong Kong on Tuesday, several meat vendors said that they had stopped selling pork in recent days — partly because of scarce supplies, but also because they feared selling it could expose them to liabilities.
周二,在香港春秧街传统巿场,几家肉贩表示最近几天已经停止了猪肉的销售——部分原因是供应不足,但也是因为担心出售猪肉需要担责。
周二,春秧街传统市场。上周,香港查出首例非洲猪瘟病例,并立即停止从中国大陆进口生猪。
周二,春秧街传统市场。上周,香港查出首例非洲猪瘟病例,并立即停止从中国大陆进口生猪。 Lam Yik Fei for The New York Times
That left one shopper, Wong Wai-lai, 57, wondering what to cook for dinner in place of her usual pork-rib soup.
这让57岁的购物者黄伟黎(Wong Wai-lai,音)不知道晚餐该做什么,来代替她通常喝的排骨汤。
“It seems like we have to opt for fish today,” she said while scanning a few specimens that were displayed on ice. “But it’s always better to be safe than sorry. Swine fever is no joke.”
“看来我们今天只能吃鱼了,”她一边说,一边仔细查看放在冰上的几个样品。“但安全总比后悔好。猪瘟可不是开玩笑。”
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Not everyone supported the government’s swift actions to contain the epidemic.
并不是所有人都支持政府迅速采取行动控制疫情。
John Lau, a local pig farmer, said the closure of the second slaughterhouse was an overreach because it prevented farmers like him — none of whom have reported African swine fever infections in their hog herds — from making a living.
当地的养猪户约翰·刘(John Lau)表示,关闭第二家屠宰场是反应过度,因为这影响了像他这样的养猪户——他们当中没有人报告过自己的猪群感染了非洲猪瘟。
“There doesn’t need to be a huge shortage,” he said.
“没必要搞到严重短缺,”他说。
Professor Pfeiffer said that Hong Kong’s decision to cull 6,000 pigs had probably been an overreaction because many of the animals had not been sick. Still, he added, it was understandably difficult for governments in Asia and beyond to move away from their usual “sledgehammer” approach to outbreaks.
法伊弗说,香港宰杀6000头猪的决定可能是反应过度,因为很多猪并没有生病。不过,他又称,亚洲及其他地方的政府在应对疫情的时候,往往采取“下重手”的做法,是可以理解的。
For example, Chinese officials have recently started giving farmers about $116 to $174 for every infected pig carcass they cull, he said. But even that can create the wrong kind of incentives.
他举例说,中国官员最近开始向农民提供补贴,每杀一头受到感染的猪,可以获得约116美元至174美元的赔偿。但即便如此,也可能造成事与愿违的后果。
“You either give too much and they want to have the disease,” he said, “or you give too little and they will not tell you they have the disease.”
他说:“给得太多,他们就想要这种病;给得太少,他们就不会告诉你有这种病。”
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A spokesman for the Hong Kong Food and Health Bureau said on Tuesday that no officials there were available to comment.
香港食物及卫生局发言人周二称,没有可予置评的官员。
On social media, users in Hong Kong expressed shock about the culling operation and sympathy toward the slaughtered swine.
在社交媒体上,香港网民对扑杀行动表示惊讶,并对遭遇灭顶之灾的猪表示同情。
“Humans owe you all an apology,” one user wrote on Facebook, referring to pigs.
一名用户在Facebook上写道:“人类欠你们大家一个道歉。”这里的“你们”指的是猪。
Elvis Chan, a vegetarian chef and food blogger, proposed what he said was a simple solution to the city’s pork crisis.
素食厨师、美食博主陈浩然(Elvis Chan)提出了一个解决香港猪肉危机的简单办法。
“More vegetarianism, less killing,” he wrote. “O.K.?”
“多吃素,少些杀戮,”他写道,“好不好?”