BEIJING — China moved to retaliate against the United States, announcing plans on Monday to raise tariffs on American goods ranging from beer and wine to swimsuits, shirts and liquefied natural gas.
北京——周一,中国采取行动报复美国,宣布计划提高从啤酒、葡萄酒到泳衣、衬衫和液化天然气等美国商品的关税。
The decision, which follows President Trump’s increase in tariffs on Chinese goods last Friday, escalates the pressure in the ongoing trade war.
这一决定是在特朗普总统上周五提高对中国商品关税之后做出的,令正在进行的贸易战压力进一步增大。
Trade talks between the two sides broke down last week without a deal, causing tensions that have rippled through financial markets and the global economy. American stocks plunged on Monday, extending the recent losses.
双方贸易谈判于上周破裂,没有达成协议,导致紧张局势蔓延至金融市场和全球经济。美国股市于周一暴跌,延续了近期的跌势。
Beijing’s retaliation comes at a time when many in China feel that the United States has behaved highhandedly in threatening tariffs. “Mutual trust and respect are of the essence in handling the negotiations,” said Zhu Ning, a Tsinghua University economics professor.
北京采取报复行动之际,中国许多人认为美国威胁征收关税的行为非常专横。“在谈判过程中,相互信任和尊重是至关重要的,”清华大学经济学教授朱宁表示。
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It isn’t clear whether China’s retaliation would end with the tariff increases. In the past, China has slowed imports at customs and launched investigations into foreign companies during times of tension.
目前尚不清楚中国的报复行动是否会止于提高关税。过去,中国曾在局势紧张时期放慢进口货物通关速度并对外国公司展开调查
Hu Xijin, editor of the Global Times, a tabloid owned by the Chinese Communist Party, tweeted on Monday evening that he was expecting broader retaliation, including halting purchases of American agricultural and energy products, reducing orders for Boeing aircraft and possibly even the sale of part of China’s large holdings of Treasuries.
中共所有的小报《环球时报》主编胡锡进周一晚上发推说,他预计会有更大规模的报复,包括停止购买美国的农业和能源产品、减少波音飞机订单、甚至可能将中国大量持有的美国国债售出一部分。
The last of these threats once unnerved markets but has since lost some of its edge. China has been diversifying for the past decade where it parks its money, and had to spend a quarter of its huge hoard of foreign currency reserves three years ago to stem a decline in its currency.
最后一项威胁曾令市场感到不安,但现在已经失去了一些威力。过去10年,中国一直在实现外汇储备多元化,三年前不得不动用其巨额外汇储备的四分之一来阻止人民币贬值。
China’s finance ministry announced on Monday evening that it was raising tariffs on a wide range of American goods to 20 percent or 25 percent from 10 percent. But the ministry delayed implementation until June 1.
中国财政部于周一晚间宣布,将对多种美国商品的关税从10%上调至20%或25%。但将实施日期推迟到6月1日。
The delay will allow time for negotiators to make one last push for a deal. It roughly matches a delay that the Trump administration put on its own tariff increase.
这一拖延将为谈判人员争取时间,为达成协议做最后的努力。这与特朗普政府推迟提高关税的行动大致相符。
President Trump on Friday raised tariffs on $200 billion a year worth of Chinese goods, particularly auto parts, to 25 percent from 10 percent. He had already imposed 25 percent tariffs last summer on another $50 billion a year of Chinese goods, including a wide range of products that his administration views as strategic, from cars to aircraft parts and nuclear reactor components.
特朗普总统周五将价值2000亿美元的中国商品,尤其是汽车零部件的关税从10%提高到25%。去年夏天,他已对另外500亿美元的中国商品征收25%的关税,其中包括一系列其政府认为具有战略意义的产品,从汽车到飞机零部件及核反应堆部件。
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The Trump administration has more tariffs planned. The Office of the United States Trade Representative has said that on Monday, it will issue for public comment at Mr. Trump’s direction a proposal to raise tariffs on “essentially all remaining imports from China, which are valued at approximately $300 billion.”
特朗普政府还计划征收更多关税。美国贸易代表办公室(Office of The United States Trade Representative)于周一表示,将按照特朗普的指示,在周一就“对基本上所有尚未征税的、价值约为3000亿美元的中国进口商品”加征关税提案向公众征求意见。
Because China’s entire imports from the United States are considerably less than $200 billion, it has not had the option of matching the United States dollar for dollar. Last September, China had matched President Trump’s 10 percent tariffs on $200 billion a year in goods with its own tariffs of 5 percent to 10 percent on $60 billion a year in American goods.
由于中国从美国的进口总额远低于2000亿美元,因此它没有能力对等值的美国进口产品征收关税。去年9月,特朗普总统对每年2000亿美元的商品征收10%的关税,中国的反制措施是对每年600亿美元的美国商品征收5%到10%的关税。
On Monday, China’s ministry of finance raised those tariffs by introducing four new categories for the $60 billion in goods. The tariffs on those four categories are 25 percent, 20 percent, 10 percent and 5 percent.
中国财政部周一宣布,把对价值600亿美元的商品分为四个新的类别征收关税。这四类产品的关税税率分别为25%、20%、10%和5%。
The finance ministry did not specify the dollar value of goods in each of the four categories. But the largest number of tariff codes in the $60 billion was assigned to the 25 percent category, suggesting that China was raising the tariffs on many imports to that level.
财政部没有具体说明这四类商品中每类的价值总额。但在价值600亿美元的税目商品中,列入征收25%关税的商品条目最多,这表明中国正在将许多进口商品的关税提高到这一水平。
China’s tariff increases on Monday included raising the tariff on liquefied natural gas imports from the United States to 25 percent from 10 percent. That could hurt Texas, Oklahoma and Louisiana, three states with a lot of Trump supporters.
周一,中国把包括液化天然气在内的美国进口商品的关税从10%提高到25%。这可能会伤害到得克萨斯、俄克拉荷马和路易斯安那这三个特朗普的票仓。
By contrast, China left unchanged at 5 percent its tariffs on about a tenth of the product categories in the $60 billion. These included its tariffs on imports of American tires, light bulbs and certain paper products.
相比之下,中国对600亿美元的税目商品中约十分之一的产品保持5%的关税不变。其中包括对从美国进口的轮胎、灯泡和某些纸制品。
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Neither the American tariffs nor China’s retaliation will go into effect right away. Despite the rising tensions, the Trump administration structured its tariff increase on Friday so that it won’t take effect for a few weeks, giving both sides a bit more room to reach a deal. In a departure from the usual practice of assessing tariffs on goods based on the date when they reach American seaports and airports, the Trump administration declared that the increased tariffs on $200 billion a year in goods would be applied only to shipments that left China from Friday onward.
无论是美国的关税还是中国的报复性关税,都不会立即生效。尽管紧张局势不断加剧,但特朗普政府还是在周五对提高关税的计划做出精心安排,使其在几周内不会生效,给了双方更多达成协议的空间。与通常根据货物到达美国港口和机场的日期来确定货物关税的做法不同,特朗普政府宣布,对每年2000亿美元商品加征的关税仅适用于周五从中国离境的货物。
Goods that travel by sea take two to four weeks to reach the United States from China, depending mainly on whether the ship sails to the East or West Coast and how fast the ship travels. That means the effect won’t be felt for a few weeks except for the small share of goods moving by air.
货物走海运从中国到美国需要两到四周的时间,这主要取决于船是到东海岸还是西海岸,以及船的速度。这意味着,除了一小部分走空运的货物外,相关影响在几周后才会感觉得到。
Chris Rogers, a trade analyst at Panjiva, a trade data firm, said that roughly 90 percent of all American imports from China come by sea, and the rest by air. An even higher proportion of the $200 billion in goods being hit by the latest tariff increase is likely to come by sea, he said, because the higher tariffs do not cover big categories like iPhones that come to the United States almost entirely by air.
贸易数据公司磐聚网(Panjiva)的贸易分析师克里斯·罗杰斯(Chris Rogers)说,美国从中国进口的商品中,约有90%是走海运,其余的走空运。他说,在受到最近一次关税上调冲击的2000亿美元商品中,海运的比例更大,因为更高的关税不包括几乎完全通过空运进入美国的iPhone等大类别商品。
There is also a practical reason for the Trump administration not to have imposed the tariff increase right away: Updating customs procedures can be slow. The Trump administration “wanted to start the clock but be realistic about implementation,” said James Green, the top trade official at the United States embassy in Beijing until August and now a senior adviser at McLarty Associates, a Washington consulting firm.
特朗普政府没有立即提高关税还有一个实际原因:海关程序的更新可能会很慢。在美国驻北京大使馆担任最高贸易官员至去年8月的詹姆斯·格林(James Green)说,特朗普政府“想要马上启动,但在执行方面不得不现实一些”。格林现在是华盛顿麦克拉蒂咨询公司(McLarty Associates)的高级顾问。
The question now is whether another round of tit-for-tat tariff increases portends an economic struggle between the United States and China that could last for many years. Since President Trump was elected, the two sides have repeatedly seemed close to a deal only for it to fall apart. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross seemed to have the outlines of a deal in 2017. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin talked of a deal being at hand a year ago.
现在的问题是,新一轮针锋相对的关税上调是否预示着美中之间的经济争斗可能会持续多年。自特朗普总统当选以来,双方似乎多次接近达成协议,结果却以失败告终。2017年,商务部长威尔伯·罗斯(Wilbur Ross)似乎有了一项协议的纲要。财政部长史蒂文·马努钦(Steven Mnuchin)一年前曾谈到接近达成一项协议。
President Trump himself was upbeat about the prospects for a deal last month. Chinese officials have been consistently encouraging about progress toward a deal for the past two years, even though a hardening of China’s stance last week appears to have contributed to Mr. Trump’s decision this week to raise tariffs.
上个月,特朗普总统本人也曾对达成协议的前景表示乐观。过去两年来,中国官员一直对达成协议的进展感到鼓舞,尽管上周中国的强硬立场似乎是特朗普决定提高关税的原因之一。
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Last week’s round of talks in Washington is the 11th time that senior Chinese and American officials have met to discuss trade since President Trump took office. “What should be concerning to markets is how close both sides have gotten to a deal before one side backs off,” something that has happened again and again, said Hannah Anderson, a global markets strategist in the Hong Kong office of J.P. Morgan Asset Management.
上周在华盛顿举行的会谈,是自特朗普总统上任以来中美高级官员第11次举行会面讨论贸易问题。摩根资产管理(J.P. Morgan Asset Management)驻香港全球市场策略师汉娜·安德森(Hannah Anderson)说,“市场应该担心的是,在一方放弃之前,双方距离达成协议有多近。”
Global markets fell on Monday, and the renminbi, China’s currency, also fell half a percent against the dollar. Goldman Sachs revised its forecast for the currency’s value, to 6.95 to the dollar three months from now, instead of the 6.65 it had been expecting.
周一,全球市场下跌,人民币兑美元也下跌了半个百分点。高盛(Goldman Sachs)将它对人民币兑美元的汇率预期从此前的1美元兑6.65元上调至1美元兑6.95元。
Falls in the Chinese currency make Chinese goods more competitive in foreign markets, including Europe’s as well as the United States. But a weakening renminbi also creates an incentive for Chinese companies and households to try to evade China’s controls on international money movements and shift large sums out of the country, which could undermine the stability of China’s financial system.
人民币贬值使中国商品在包括欧洲和美国在内的国外市场上更具竞争力。但这也会促使中国企业和家庭尝试逃避中国对国际货币流动的控制,将大笔资金转移出国,这有可能会破坏中国金融体系的稳定。