BEIJING — China’s mounting Covid-19 restrictions are creating further disruptions to global supply chains for consumer electronics, car parts and other goods.
北京——中国日益严格的新冠防疫措施正在进一步破坏消费电子产品、汽车零部件和其他商品的全球供应链。
A growing number of Chinese cities are requiring truck drivers to take daily Covid P.C.R. tests before allowing them to cross municipal borders or are quarantining drivers deemed to be at risk of infection. The measures have limited how quickly drivers can move components among factories and goods from plants to ports.
中国越来越多的城市要求卡车司机每天进行核酸检测才能进行跨城运输,或隔离被认为有感染风险的司机。这些措施限制了司机在工厂之间运送零部件,以及将货物从车间运到港口的速度。
Shanghai and other major Chinese cities have imposed lengthy, stringent lockdowns to try to control Covid outbreaks. Previous interruptions in the supply of goods from Chinese factories to buyers around the world mainly involved the temporary closure of shipping ports, including in Shenzhen in southeastern China in May and June last year and then near Shanghai last summer.
上海和中国其他主要城市已经实施了漫长而严格的封锁,以试图控制新冠病毒暴发。此前,从中国工厂到全球买家的货物供应中断主要是因为港口的临时关闭,包括去年5月和6月的深圳港,以及去年夏天的上海港。
“The problem is not ships — it’s that there’s no cargo coming because there are no trucks,” said Jarrod Ward, the chief East Asia business development officer in the Shanghai office of Yusen Logistics, a large Japanese supply chain management company.
日本大型供应链管理公司日邮物流上海办事处的首席东亚业务发展官贾罗德·沃德说:“问题不在于船只,而是因为没有卡车,所以货物来不了。”
广告
The testing of truck drivers has been held up because some cities are doing mass testing of residents. Shanghai tested essentially all 25 million people within its borders in a single day on Monday and detected another 21,000 cases on Thursday.
由于一些城市正在对居民进行大规模检测,卡车司机的检测一直被搁置。上周一,上海基本上在一天内完成了市内2500万人的检测,周四又发现了2.1万例病例。
Now, there is an acute shortage of truck drivers in Shanghai and in nearby cities like Kunshan, a center of electronics production. Many electronics components manufacturers are shutting down in Kunshan.
现在,上海以及周边城市,包括电子产品生产中心昆山,卡车司机严重短缺。昆山多家电子元件厂停工。
“The key electronics suppliers to Apple, to Tesla, they’re all based there,” said Julie Gerdeman, the chief executive of Everstream, a supply chain risk management affiliate of DHL that is based in San Marcos, Calif.
DHL旗下的供应链风险管理子公司、总部位于加州圣马科斯的Everstream首席执行官朱莉·格德曼说:“苹果和特斯拉的主要电子产品供应商都在那儿。”
Apple declined to comment, and Tesla had no immediate reply to questions.
苹果拒绝置评,特斯拉也没有立即回复。
Many factories have tried to stay open by having workers stay on site instead of going home. Employees have been sleeping on mats on the floor for as long as four weeks in some cities in northeastern China. Companies have been storing goods in nearby warehouses while waiting for normal truck traffic to resume.
许多工厂为了维持运营,试图让工人住在厂里。在中国东北的一些城市,员工们已经在地板上的垫子上睡了长达四个星期。一些公司将货物储存在附近仓库,同时等待卡车交通恢复正常。
But as lockdowns stretch on in cities like Shanghai, Changchun and Shenyang, factories are starting to run out of materials to assemble. Some are sending their workers home until further notice.
但随着上海、长春和沈阳等城市的封锁延长,工厂用于组装的原料出现了用完的情况。有些工厂放工人回家,直至另行通知。
Making car seats, for example, requires different springs, bolts and other materials. Mr. Ward said car seat producers had run out of components. Volkswagen said it had closed a factory outside Shanghai.
举个例子,制造汽车座椅需要不同的弹簧、螺栓和其他材料。沃德说,汽车座椅生产商已经用完了现有的零部件。大众汽车表示已关闭上海郊外的一家工厂。
While Shanghai’s cases increase, its main rival in electronics manufacturing, Shenzhen, has emerged from lockdown. That is freeing workers and factories there to resume full-speed production.
在上海的病例增加的同时,其电子制造业主要竞争对手深圳已解封。那里的工人和工厂得以恢复开工,全速生产。
Retailers and manufacturers in the West tried to adapt to previous supply chain difficulties in China by switching from ships to airfreight, but airfreight rates have more than doubled from last year.
西方的零售商和制造商试图通过从船舶转向空运来适应中国之前的供应链困难,但空运成本比去年翻了一番多。
广告
The near-total suspension of passenger flights in and out of Shanghai has roughly halved the airfreight capacity there, said Zvi Schreiber, the chief executive of Freightos, a freight booking platform. The war in Ukraine has forced many airlines to schedule longer flights around Russia and Ukraine, which means each plane can make fewer trips in a week and often can carry less weight on each flight.
货运预订平台弗雷托斯货运公司的首席执行官兹维·施赖伯表示,进出上海的客运航班几乎完全暂停,使那里的空运能力减少了约一半。乌克兰的战事使得许多航司不得不绕飞俄罗斯和乌克兰,航班的时间延长,意味着每架飞机一周内的飞行次数减少,而且每次航班能够携带的货物重量也变少了。
The war in Ukraine is also starting to hurt the availability of Soviet-era Antonov freighters, Mr. Schreiber said. These workhorses of the airfreight industry have been kept going in recent years almost entirely by Ukrainian maintenance bases that are now closed.
施赖伯说,乌克兰的战争也开始影响苏联时代的安东诺夫运输机的使用。近年来,空运行业的这一主力机型的持续运转几乎完全依赖于乌克兰的维修基地,而现在这些基地已关闭。
For companies, any additional disruptions to the global supply chain would come at a particularly fraught moment, on top of rising prices for raw materials and shipping, along with extended delivery times and worker shortages.
当前原材料和运输价格上涨、交货时间延长、工人短缺,对于公司而言,全球供应链的任何额外干扰都会让它们难上加难。