Sign up for NYT Chinese-language Morning Briefing.
[欢迎点击此处、或发送邮件至cn.letters@nytimes.com订阅《纽约时报》中文简报。]
WUHAN, China — Facing growing pressure to contain a deadly viral outbreak that has spread halfway around the world, China’s ruling Communist Party raced on Tuesday to confront the disease, slapping restrictions on the city where it started and warning that anyone who hides infections will be “forever nailed to history’s pillar of shame.”
中国武汉——一种致命病毒已在大半个地球传播,面对遏制这种病毒暴发越来越大的压力,周二,执政的中国共产党加紧直面疾病,对源头城市实施限制措施。它还警告,隐藏疫情者将“永远被钉在历史的耻辱柱上”。
The response by the Chinese leadership, which has come under intensifying criticism that it has been slow to acknowledge the severity of the outbreak, came as fatalities from the disease tripled to at least nine. Infections surged from 200 to 440, and global financial markets were rattled by the possibility of a pandemic emanating from the world’s most populous country during the Lunar New Year — Asia’s heaviest travel season.
中国领导层做出回应之际,中国的死亡人数已增加两倍,达到至少九人。中国领导层受到越来越多的批评,称其在承认疫情严重性方面行动迟缓。感染人数从200人飙升至440人,全球金融市场因全球人口最多的国家可能在春节(亚洲最繁忙的旅游季节)期间暴发流行病而恐慌。
Already, cases of the pneumonia-like virus have also been confirmed in the United States, Taiwan, Japan, Thailand and South Korea. Airports around the world, including in the United States and Australia, are screening passengers from Wuhan. North Korea temporarily closed its borders to foreign tours, the vast majority of them from China. The World Health Organization has called a meeting on Wednesday over whether to declare the outbreak an international health emergency.
美国、台湾、日本、泰国和韩国也出现了类似肺炎病毒感染的确诊病例包括美国和澳大利亚在内的世界各地的机场都在对来自武汉的乘客进行筛查。朝鲜暂时对外国游客关闭边境,其中绝大多数来自中国。世界卫生组织周三召开会议,讨论是否宣布此次疫情为国际关注的公共卫生紧急事件。
广告
In Wuhan, the central Chinese city of 11 million where the outbreak began, the authorities have banned group tours out of the city and ordered vehicles checked for live animals. Nervous residents are buying up face masks and flooding hospitals to report fevers and coughs. Some schools are canceling classes and even Buddhist temples are turning away the faithful.
在暴发疫情的中部城市武汉,当局已禁止旅行团队组团外出,并下令检查车辆是否携带活体动物,这座城市人口有1100万。紧张的居民纷纷购买口罩,涌入医院报告发烧和咳嗽。一些学校取消了课程,甚至佛教寺庙也将信徒拒之门外。
At home and abroad, the Chinese authorities are facing demands for greater transparency in their disclosures about the disease, as new cases emerged this week in other major Chinese cities and officials confirmed that the virus spreads from human-to-human contact.
在国内外,随着本周中国其他大城市出现新的病例,以及官员证实病毒可以通过人际传播,中国当局面临着提高疾病信息披露透明度的要求。
The outbreak is testing China’s leader, Xi Jinping, and the party’s penchant for secrecy in moments of crisis, 17 years after Beijing drew widespread criticism for withholding information and acting slowly in handling the outbreak of SARS, which killed more than 800 people and infected more than 8,000 worldwide.
此次疫情的暴发,对于中国领导人习近平及中国共产党在危机时刻的隐瞒倾向是一个考验。17年前,北京因隐瞒信息和在应对非典疫情时行动迟缓而受到广泛批评,那场疾病导致全球800多人死亡,8000多人受感染。
Mr. Xi, who has sought to expand China’s global influence, seems eager to shake the shadow of SARS and show that Beijing can handle a public health crisis like a responsible world power. A top party committee on Tuesday said in stark terms that it would not tolerate any efforts to hide infections.
习近平寻求扩大中国的全球影响力,似乎急于摆脱非典的阴影,显示出北京能像一个负责任的世界大国那样应对公共卫生危机。周二,一个中共最高委员会明确表示,不会容忍任何隐瞒疫情的行为。
“Whoever deliberately delays or conceals reporting for the sake of their own interests will be forever nailed to history’s pillar of shame,” the committee said in a post on a popular social media site.
“谁为了一己之利,刻意迟报瞒报,都会永远钉在历史的耻辱柱上,”该委员会在一个热门社交媒体网站上发帖称。
On Monday, China’s health commission said it would respond with measures intended to manage outbreaks of the most virulent diseases, including mandatory reporting of cases. It classified the virus as a class B infectious disease — a category that includes diseases such as SARS.
中国卫生健康委员会周一表示,将采取措施应对疫情,包括强制报告病例。它把这种病毒归为B类传染病,非典等疾病也属于这个类别。
But the government, wary of letting fear run rampant, is also working meticulously to control the narrative about the virus by censoring news articles and social media posts. The police in Wuhan investigated eight citizens this month for spreading what it described as rumors on the internet.
但政府也担心恐惧情绪蔓延,它审查新闻文章和社交媒体帖子,谨慎地控制关于病毒的叙述。武汉警方本月调查了八名市民,称他们在网上散布谣言。
周二,北京主要火车站的旅客戴上了防护口罩。
周二,北京主要火车站的旅客戴上了防护口罩。 Nicolas Asfouri/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
Now, even as the government works to isolate sick patients amid travel by millions of people making visits for the Lunar New Year holiday — and infections are reported in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing and other major cities — there is concern that the party’s long-held reluctance to divulge damaging news could hinder the effort to contain the virus.
现在,北京、上海、重庆和其他大城市也报告了感染病例,即使政府在有成百上千万人出行的春节假期期间努力隔离病人,依然有人担心,长期以来,党不愿透露有害新闻,这可能会阻碍遏制病毒的努力。
For weeks, the government had mostly treated the outbreak as a problem isolated to Wuhan. It was only after the Hong Kong news media reported that cases of the coronavirus had been detected elsewhere that the government began acknowledging, early Monday, that the disease had spread to other cities.
几周来,政府一直将此次疫情视为仅限于武汉的问题。直到香港新闻媒体报道在其他地方发现了冠状病毒病例后,政府才于周一早间开始承认,疾病已经扩散到其他城市。
广告
Many wondered why the central government waited until Monday to allow a top health expert to speak publicly about the outbreak. The expert not only corroborated what the Hong Kong news media had already reported but confirmed vital new information: that the virus spreads between people and that one patient had infected more than a dozen medical workers.
许多人不解,为什么中央政府要等到周一才允许一位顶级卫生专家公开谈论此次疫情。这名专家不仅证实了香港新闻媒体已经报道的情况,还证实了一些重要的新信息:该病毒可以人际传播,一名患者感染了十几名医护人员。
“The response is not fast enough, it’s not strong enough,” said Shen Zhengjiang, 57, a teacher, as he looked for masks at a pharmacy in Wuhan on Tuesday. “The local officials are paying attention to this now only because Xi Jinping spoke up.”
“防控的力度不够大不够快,”57岁的教师沈正江(音)周二在武汉一家药店找口罩时说。“下面不够重视上面领导发话了才重视,习近平发话了才重视。”
The outbreak presents Mr. Xi, who rose to power in 2012, with one of the most serious public health crises of his tenure. It will be a significant test of his leadership at a time when China is seeking to strengthen trust in the party and to project confidence in Mr. Xi’s authoritarian approach.
此次疫情给2012年上台的习近平带来了任内最严重的公共卫生危机之一。这将是对其领导能力的一次重大考验,目前中国正加强对党的信任,增强对习近平的威权方式的信心。
Any missteps could undermine the party’s credibility in the eyes of the public, experts said.
专家表示,任何失误都可能损害党在公众心目中的信誉。
“This is the sort of thing that could absolutely gnaw at the confidence and legitimacy of the whole regime,” said Kerry Brown, director of the Lau China Institute at King’s College London.
伦敦国王学院中国研究所主任凯瑞·布朗(Kerry Brown)说:“这种事情绝对可以使整个政权的信心和合法性受到损害。”
Experts said the challenge for Mr. Xi would be daunting, as the world looks to China to stop the virus before it spreads on a global scale.
专家表示,习近平面临的挑战是艰巨的,全世界都希望中国在病毒在全球蔓延之前阻止其传播。
广告
Yanzhong Huang, director of the Center for Global Health Studies at Seton Hall University, said that it appeared Mr. Xi was seeking to show that the virus is under control and would not cause social unrest.
西东大学(Seton Hall University)全球健康研究中心主任黄严忠说,习近平似乎在试图证明该病毒已经得到控制,不会引起社会动荡。
But he said the government’s failure to initially detail the spread of the virus to mainland cities and to disclose that medical workers had been infected was worrying.
但他表示,政府一开始没有详细说明病毒向大陆城市传播的细节,也没有透露医务人员的感染情况,令人担忧。
“So far this pattern of a lack of transparency and inaction has unfortunately not changed,” said Professor Huang, an expert on the SARS epidemic. “The politics continue to constrain the government to respond effectively.”
“遗憾的是,到目前为止,这种缺乏透明度和不作为的模式没有改变。”同时也是非典流行病专家的黄严忠说道。“政治继续限制政府做出有效反应。”
武汉一家医院的一名病人。
武汉一家医院的一名病人。 Darley Shen/Reuters
The Chinese government, which has been praised by the W.H.O. for its efforts so far, has said it took time to analyze the coronavirus, which experts believe appears to be mostly transmitted to humans by animals.
中国政府迄今为止的努力受到了国际卫生组织的赞扬。中国政府表示,分析冠状病毒需要时间,专家认为,该病毒似乎主要是由动物传播给人类的。
The delay in reporting the spread of the disease was attributed to technological but also bureaucratic challenges. Some hospitals lacked testing kits, according to remarks on Monday by Dr. Zhong Nanshan, a prominent scientist who is leading a government-appointed panel of experts assisting in controlling the outbreak. The process was also slowed down, he said, because local hospitals were required to submit cases to the central health commission in Beijing for review before going public.
疾病传播的通报延迟,除了归因于技术挑战,还有官僚主义的挑战。周一,著名科学家钟南山博士在讲话中说,一些医院缺乏检测试剂盒。钟南山正在领导政府指定的一个专家小组,协助控制疫情。他说,这一过程也被放慢了,因为根据要求,当地医院在公开情况之前要将病例先上报北京的国家卫生健康委员会。
For weeks, the authorities in Wuhan seemed to play down the threat posed by the virus. The health department said it had only been found in people who visited a local market that had sold live fish, birds and other animals, and that workers had disinfected and shut down the site.
数周来,武汉当局似乎在淡化该病毒带来的威胁。卫生部门说,仅在去过当地一个市场的人当中发现了这种病,该市场出售活鱼、鸟和其他动物,并且工作人员已经对这个地方进行了消毒,并关闭了该地点。
广告
Cases have begun to appear overseas, first involving travelers from Thailand and Japan who had visited Wuhan but had not all visited the market. On Tuesday, the first confirmed case in the United States was announced: a man from Washington State who experienced symptoms after returning from the region around Wuhan.
海外也出现了病例,最初涉及去过武汉但并未去过该市场的泰国和日本游客。周二,美国首例确诊病例宣布:华盛顿州一名男子,他从武汉附近地区返回美国后出现症状。
Questions have emerged on Chinese social media about whether the Chinese government has been forthcoming. Many articles and posts, including some using the hashtag #WuhanSARS, were censored.
对于政府是否存在隐瞒的疑问,出现在中国的社交媒体上。许多文章和帖子遭到了审查,包括使用了#WuhanSARS标签的。
After his stepmother died of viral pneumonia last week, Kyle Hui, 32, an architect from Shanghai, turned to Weibo, a Twitterlike site, to report her case. Mr. Hui’s stepmother was never formally tested for the virus, and he was concerned that the Wuhan government was underreporting cases of the illness. But his post soon disappeared from the internet.
现年32岁的上海建筑师凯尔·许(Kyle Hui)在其继母上周因病毒性肺炎去世后,在微博上公开了她的病例,微博是一个类似Twitter的网站。凯尔·许的继母从未接受过这种病毒的正式检测,他担心武汉市政府对这种疾病进行了漏报。但是他的帖子很快就从互联网上消失了。
“People accuse me of spreading rumors, but I’m just trying to tell my stepmother's story,” he said in an interview at a cafe in Wuhan.
在武汉一家咖啡馆,他在接受采访时说:“人们指责我散布谣言,但我只是想讲继母的情况。”
Even as the authorities came under attack, they doubled down on their approach. At one point, in an apparent effort to dispel rumors that the virus had spread to other mainland cities, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention issued a statement saying that the virus did not resemble SARS.
尽管当局受到指责,但还是加倍努力。中国疾病预防控制中心一度发表声明,称该病毒与非典不同,显然是为了消除有关该病毒已蔓延到其他大陆城市的传言。
The authorities in Wuhan will begin barring group tours from traveling outside of the city and will carry out checks of vehicles to search for live animals, state media reported on Monday. The city has also installed infrared thermometers at airports, and bus and train stations.
官方媒体周一报道,武汉开始禁止旅行团组团外出,并对车辆进行检查,寻找活体动物。该市还在机场、长途汽车站和火车站安装了红外测温仪。
It was not until Monday that the government changed course, after news outlets in Hong Kong reported over the weekend that there were several potential cases of the illness in Shanghai and Shenzhen, a southern city. The central government dispatched Dr. Zhong, a renowned expert with a reputation for bluntness, to Wuhan.
直到周一,在香港的新闻媒体周末报道了上海和南方城市深圳出现疑似病例后,政府才改变做法。中央政府派遣以实事求是著称的著名专家钟南山博士前往武汉。
马来西亚吉隆坡国际机场的乘客在接受热扫描仪的扫描。
马来西亚吉隆坡国际机场的乘客在接受热扫描仪的扫描。 Mohd Rasfan/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
Dr. Zhong, in candid television appearances, revealed for the first time that the virus could spread from person to person — noting, for example, that one patient had been able to infect 14 medical workers. He warned that the virus could be present in particles of saliva and urged people to avoid unnecessary travel to Wuhan.
钟南山在电视上很坦率,首次透露该病毒可能在人与人之间传播——他指出,有一位患者感染了14名医务人员。他警告,该病毒可能存在于飞沫中,并敦促人们在不必要的情况下尽量不要去往武汉。
Dr. Zhong won wide praise from the Chinese public, and memes circulated online contrasting his urgent tone with the calm words of local officials.
钟南山赢得了中国公众的广泛赞誉,并且网上传开了许多模因,将他的急切语气与当地官员的平静语气进行了对比。
广告
The spread of the virus has upended the Lunar New Year holiday this week, when millions of Chinese return to their hometowns to celebrate. The authorities have encouraged people showing symptoms of the virus, including high fever, difficulty breathing and lung lesions, to see a doctor.
病毒的传播扰乱了本周的农历新年假期,届时成百上千万的中国人将返乡过年。当局鼓励表现出这种病毒症状的人就医,症状包括高烧、呼吸困难和肺部病变。
In Wuhan, some residents have canceled plans to go out to lavish meals for the new year and say they are avoiding enclosed spaces like movie theaters. Some firms have instructed employees to stay home. Many people now wear masks throughout the day, as they make dinner, play cards or chat with friends.
在武汉,一些居民取消了在外面吃年饭的计划,并表示会避免前往电影院这样的封闭空间。一些公司已指示员工留在家中。现在,许多人在做饭、打牌或与朋友聊天时,整天都戴着口罩。
Some residents are packing up and leaving Wuhan, vowing to stay away until the virus is contained.
一些居民正在收拾行装离开武汉,说要躲到外面,直到病毒被控制住为止。
At the Wuhan airport on Tuesday, Luo Jie, 62, a retiree, rushed to catch a flight to Beijing that she had booked that morning. She said she wanted to “escape” because the outbreak reminded her of the SARS crisis.
周二,在武汉机场,62岁的退休人员罗洁(音)赶去乘坐当天早上才预订的飞往北京的航班。她说她想“逃离”,因为这次疫情使她想起了非典危机。
“I hope the government will report the epidemic honestly,” she said. “That’s how to set people’s minds at ease.”
“我希望就按照目前这样如实公布疫情,”她说。“这就是给老百姓最好的安心丸。”