For years, Li Guangman, a retired Chinese newspaper editor, wrote in obscurity, firing off attack after attack at chic celebrities and celebrated tycoons whom he accused of betraying the sturdy socialist values of Mao. Few outside of China’s fervent but narrow world of Maoist leftists read them.
Until now.
Mr. Li leapt to prominence recently after an essay he wrote railing at celebrity culture and misbehaving corporations ricocheted across China’s internet, spreading on far-left-wing websites and then on at least five major Communist Party-run news websites, including the People’s Dailysuggesting support from at least some officials.
The official boost for Mr. Li’s polemic startled Chinese political and business circles when doubt had already been rising about the growing role of the Communist Party in the economy. Among some, the essay left the impression that the party could intensify its crackdown on private corporations, tighten its grip on culture and hound the rich. Some critics pointed ominously to echoes of Mao’s Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, which had also emerged from attacks on the cultural elite by polemicists who were previously little known.
Perhaps surprised by the response, party officials and news outlets have tried to calm the waters without explicitly disavowing Mr. Li or removing his essay, and that has let confusion linger. On Wednesday, People’s Daily — one of the party news sites that shared Mr. Li’s essay — published a front-page editorial that said the government remained committed to market forces.
陕西省一座毛泽东塑像下身穿红军军装的旅游者。 Gilles Sabrié for The New York Times
There is no evidence that China’s top leader, Xi Jinping, or other senior officials pushed Mr. Li’s essay, and China is unlikely to tip into the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution era. But the uproar has thrown a bright light on the ideological tensions and unease building as Mr. Xi’s assembles his agenda for a likely third term.
“Underlying this Li Guangman episode is deep anxiety and uncertainty about where Xi is taking politics and policy,” Jude Blanchette, the author of a study of China’s Maoist revivalists and the Freeman chair in China Studies at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, said in an interview. “It’s an anxiety based on uncertainty about this question: How far does all this go?”
“李光满这件事隐含的是人们对习近平正在将政治和政策引向何方的深度焦虑和不确定,”华盛顿战略与国际研究中心(Center for Strategic and International Studies)费和中国研究项目主任(Freeman Chair in China Studies)白明(Jude Blanchette)在采访中说,他写过研究中国毛派复兴运动倡导者的文章。“这是建立在一个没有确定答案的问题上的焦虑,这个问题是:这一切要走多远?”
In the essay, Mr. Li celebrates reports of wealthy stars being detained on accusations of sexual assault or fined for tax avoidance. He cheers the investigations and fines of some of China’s biggest private companies accused of abusing their market power, including Alibaba and Didi.
A “profound revolution” was close at hand, Mr. Li declared, as Mr. Xi cleansed the country of moral and political rot, clearing the way for socialist revival under the slogan of “common prosperity.”
“This transformation will wipe away all the dust,” Mr. Li wrote in his essay, first published on Aug. 27 on WeChat, a Chinese social media platform. “Capital markets will no longer be a heaven where capitalists can make a fortune overnight. The cultural marketplace will no longer be a heaven for sissy-boy celebrities.”
多个中共网站转发了一篇抨击“娘炮名人”的文章。 Ng Han Guan/Associated Press
Two days later, a succession of party news sites republished a slightly toned-down version. These outlets cut and took the edge off some of the most incendiary passages, suggesting they wanted to soften his views for a wider readership. Chinese liberals and pro-market economists denounced it, adding to the contretemps.
The Chinese government’s recent crackdown on erring companies and celebrities have reinforced Mr. Xi’s image as a staunch defender of socialist discipline. His promises of an impending era of greater equality and “common prosperity” have magnified expectations of bolder changes to narrow the wealth gap.
“The neo-Maoists have seen all of this as a greenlight to get back out and active,” Mr. Blanchette said. “Without further official clarity, they are reading into all of this a fundamental rectification of the private sector.”
Yet Mr. Xi and his advisers have also tried to reassure entrepreneurs that China welcomes them and respects the role of market forces and the private sector, and that any efforts to reduce inequality will be measured.
The oscillating messages have generated uncertainty over where Mr. Xi could lead China, and have emboldened radicals like Mr. Li. Officials who let leftists like him push the boundaries of discussion face much less risk of punishment than any who show sympathy with liberal dissenters.
Before he struck fame, Mr. Li, in his early 60s, had published more than a thousand essays, many taking aim at those he saw as undermining China’s socialist heritage. While a newspaper editor, he immersed himself in the world of leftists devoted to defending Mao’s ideas. Years before Jack Ma, the founder of Alibaba, came under official scrutiny, Mr. Li zeroed in on him as a political nemesis, embodying the tendencies that Mr. Li despised.
“毛左”抨击阿里巴巴创始人马云,称他是放纵资本主义弊病的化身。 Wang Zhao/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
Since these far-left groups emerged during China’s surge of market-driven growth of the 1990s, they have had an uneasy symbiosis with the Communist Party. Activists in these groups number in the hundreds or thousands, and they have often served as left-flank vigilantes for the party, attacking dissidents and liberal academics.
After Mr. Xi took power, many of them embraced him as their great hope, and his recent emphasis on “common prosperity” — a phrase dating to the Mao era that suggests reducing inequality — has raised their expectations.
“They believe that they’re holding the moral high ground of socialist ideology,” said Deng Yuwen, a former editor for a party newspaper, The Study Times, who now lives in the United States. “If they publish something with too much negative impact, they may be stopped from spreading it, but the authorities won’t outright ban them.”
“他们认为他们守护了社会主义意识形态的道德高地,”曾担任中共党报《学习时报》编辑的邓聿文说,他现居美国。“假如他们发表文章影响太坏,可能不让它传播而已, 但官方不会完全禁止他们。”
Mr. Li’s overnight prominence has kindled theories that a leader in the party gave a greenlight to promote his searing attack. But that idea jars with how officials around Mr. Xi have recently gone out of their way to try to reassure private entrepreneurs that the government values them.
It was much more likely that a relatively junior propaganda official promoted the essay as an eye-catching assault on censured celebrities and companies without anticipating the dramatic reaction, said Mr. Deng, the former editor. He cited echoes of 2018, when a Chinese blogger argued that the private sector should be phased out, adding to jitters about the government’s intentions. Chinese officials, including Mr. Xi, stepped in to reassure entrepreneurs.
“Li Guangman is not that well known among us. I don’t think he has any special background,” Zhang Hongliang, who runs an ardently Maoist website in Beijing, said by telephone. “He caught onto a hot topic at the right time.”
虽然中国不太可能倒向文革时期的混乱,但意识形态上的对立已浮出水面。 Tingshu Wang/Reuters
In response to the essay, Zhang Weiying, a professor of economics at Peking University, issued an impassioned defense of markets and the private sector as the best guarantors of prosperity and social fairness. Gu Wanming, a retired journalist who worked for Xinhua, China’s main news agency, warned that Mr. Li’s used the kind of storming rhetoric “that could only be heard 60 years ago in the Cultural Revolution.”
Even Hu Xijin, the editor in chief of The Global Times, best known for his pugnacious attacks on the party’s critics, suggested in an online commentary that Mr. Li went too far. “It uses exaggerated language and deviates from major guiding policies,” wrote Mr. Hu.
Even so, Maoist leftists have kept assailing Mr. Hu and other critics and calling for more socialist control of the economy in the name of Mr. Xi’s “common prosperity.”
The commotion may calm down only when Mr. Xi clarifies of how far he wants to alter China’s economy and where he stands on the private sector, said Mr. Deng.
“An essay in the People’s Daily won’t be enough to make them back down,” he added of China’s emboldened leftists. “Now everyone is trying to guess how far Xi Jinping wants to go.”