After rebuking a senior Czech lawmaker for visiting Taiwan this month, the Chinese foreign minister, Wang Yi, received an obscenity-laced public letter that punctuated just how far China’s standing in Europe has fallen.
在譴責本月訪問台灣的捷克資深議員後,中國外交部長王毅收到了一封充斥著污言穢語的公開信,凸顯了中國在歐洲的形象惡化之嚴重。
“You should be ashamed,” another lawmaker, Pavel Novotny, an outspoken district mayor in Prague, wrote, calling the Chinese “impudent, thoughtless, uncouth clowns” and demanding an apology.
「你應該感到羞恥,」另一位議員、直言不諱的布拉格區長帕維爾·諾沃特尼(Pavel Novotny)在信中寫道,稱中國人是「無理、自私、粗魯的小丑」,並要求道歉。
The outburst was not an isolated one.
這樣的爆發並不是孤例。
In country after country, China is facing rising anger over its policies and its behavior — from trade to human rights — a major setback on a continent that Beijing has viewed as a more pragmatic, and thus more willing, partner to provide ballast against sharply deteriorating relations with the United States.
中國在一個又一個國家面臨著人們對其政策和行為——從貿易到人權——日益增加的憤怒,這是其在歐陸的一次重大挫折,北京一直將這裡視為一個更加務實,因此也更願意在中美關係急劇惡化的情況下為其提供支撐的夥伴。
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For China’s leader, Xi Jinping, a lasting shift in European views poses an enormous challenge. In the short term, it threatens to undermine the country’s post-pandemic economic recovery by stifling new investments as the United States restricts them, especially in high tech. In the longer term, it could blunt his ambitions for China to offer an alternative to the United States as the global leader dictating the rules for governance and trade.
對中國領導人習近平來說,歐洲態度的持續轉變帶來了巨大的挑戰。在短期內,由於美國限制新投資——特別是在高科技領域——這可能會阻礙中國在大流行後的經濟復甦。長遠來看,這可能會打擊習近平的雄心,即讓中國取代美國,成為主導治理和貿易規則的全球領導者。
European frustrations with Chinese policies have been mounting, but they crystallized this year in the wake of the coronavirus pandemic. China’s obfuscation of its early missteps in containing the coronavirus and its failure at “mask diplomacy” soured public sentiment in several countries, especially the Netherlands and Spain, where protective gear and other supplies that were purchased, not donated, were found to be defective.
歐洲對中國政策的不滿一直在增加,但在今年的冠狀病毒大流行之後,這種情緒更加明顯。中國刻意掩蓋其早期控制冠狀病毒失誤,以及「口罩外交」的失敗,讓一些國家——特別是荷蘭和西班牙——的公眾對其態度惡化,這些地方購買(而不是獲捐)的防護裝備和其他用品被發現有缺陷。
That has hardened views that China’s authoritarianism is fundamentally at odds with Europe’s political values despite continued pledges that Beijing seeks peaceful collaboration. So has the imposition of a new national security law in Hong Kong that has been used to crack down on dissent in the semiautonomous territory.
這使得人們更加堅定地認為,中國的威權體制從根本上與歐洲的價值觀不一致,儘管北京不斷承諾尋求和平合作。中國在香港實施新的國家安全法來鎮壓這一片自治領土的異見,也造成了同樣後果。
7月,香港警察舉起紫色旗幟警告抗議者其行為可能違反新國安法。歐洲領導人稱該法侵犯了這片中國領土的自治和民主。
7月,香港警察舉起紫色旗幟警告抗議者其行為可能違反新國安法。歐洲領導人稱該法侵犯了這片中國領土的自治和民主。 Lam Yik Fei for The New York Times
“It makes it really hard for them to convey a message of cooperation and peacefulness and harmonious society, if at the same time you see schoolgirls being beaten up by the Hong Kong police,” said Janka Oertel, director of the Asia Program at the European Council on Foreign Relations, referring to an incident captured on video recently.
「如果看著女學生被香港警察毆打,你很難同時讓他們傳達出合作、和平與和諧社會的信息,」歐洲對外關係委員會(European Council on Foreign Relations)的亞洲項目負責人揚卡·歐特爾(Janka Oertel)在談到這樁最近被拍下的事件時表示。
Mr. Xi on Monday called for a “comprehensive strategic partnership” during a virtual summit with the European Union’s leadership, but the meeting, which was once supposed to cement closer economic ties, ended with little progress on even a more limited investment pact. Instead it exposed rifts that had previously been pushed to the background.
週一,習近平在與歐盟領導人進行的虛擬峰會上呼籲建立「全面戰略夥伴關係」,但這場原本應該加強經濟聯繫的會議沒有取得多少進展,甚至連一個更有限的投資協議也沒有談成。相反,它暴露了之前被掃進幕後的裂痕。
Mr. Xi faced — and brushed aside — unusually harsh criticism on a variety of issues that reflected growing popular animosity toward China. The Europeans accused China of slow-walking promises to combat climate change. They criticized the new crackdown in Hong Kong and the longstanding one in Tibet. The Europeans also raised the imprisonment of a Swedish bookseller, the arrests of two Canadians in transparent retaliation for a criminal extradition case, and China’s unilateral moves in the disputed waters of the South China Sea.
習近平面臨——且不理會——在各種問題上不同尋常的嚴厲批評,反映出民眾對中國日益增長的敵意。歐洲人指責中國對應對氣候變化的承諾行動遲緩。他們批評中國在香港的最新鎮壓和對西藏的長期鎮壓。歐洲人還提到了中國對一位瑞典書商的監禁,拘捕兩加拿大人作為對一樁刑事引渡案件的赤裸裸報復,以及中國在南海爭議海域的單方面行動。
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“Real differences exist, and we won’t paper over them,” Charles Michel, the president of the European Council, the union’s policymaking body, said after the virtual summit on Monday.
「真正的分歧是存在的,我們也不會對此進行遮掩,」週一,歐盟決策機構歐洲理事會(European Council)主席查爾斯·米歇爾(Charles Michel)在虛擬會議結束後表示。
Alluding to those who would play the continent off the world’s two quarreling powers, he added, “Europe needs to be a player, not a playing field.”
他還暗指那些想在世界兩大國的爭執中對歐陸進行挑撥的人,「歐洲要做一個參與者,而不是個賽場。」
For now, Europe has not gone as far as the Trump administration, which has moved to dismantle decades of political, economic and social engagement, setting the stage for a new era of confrontation regardless of the outcome of the U.S. presidential election.
目前,歐洲還沒到川普政府那樣的程度,要把數十年來的政治、經濟和社會交流全部切除,為一個新的對抗時代設下了舞台,不管這次美國總統大選的結果如何。
8月27日,中國外長王毅訪問挪威奧斯陸期間,抗議者手持一面西藏旗幟。
8月27日,中國外長王毅訪問挪威奧斯陸期間,抗議者手持一面西藏旗幟。 Heiko Junge/Scanpix, via Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
Still, China faces pushback from European nations over the same issues that have inflamed relations with the United States — if not yet with the fevered pitch of the Trump administration’s most hawkish officials.
儘管如此,在導致中美關係惡化的相同問題上,就算川普政府裡最鷹派的官員還沒有進行積極推動,中國也面臨歐洲國家的反對。
Several countries, including Britain, France and Slovenia, have followed the United States in moving to restrict investments by Huawei, the Chinese telecommunications giant, while others are leaving open the possibility.
包括英國、法國和斯洛文尼亞在內的數個國家都已經跟隨美國採取行動,對中國電信巨頭華為實施了嚴格限制,而其他國家也保留了這麼做的可能性。
Italy, which only last year signed up for China’s Belt and Road investment and development project, adopted a parliamentary resolution in support of Hong Kong’s protesters and has joined other nations in opposing the new security law imposed by Beijing.
去年才與中國簽署一帶一路投資開發項目協議的義大利通過了一項議會決議,支持香港的抗議者,並與其他國家一起反對中國實施的新國安法。
廣告
Even Germany, the country with the most trade with China and a driving force in European policy, has signaled growing impatience. The foreign minister, Heiko Maas, came to the Czechs’ defense, warning Mr. Wang, his Chinese counterpart, that “threats do not fit in here.” The next day Germany unveiled a new strategy that thrusts it into the geopolitical struggle over China’s military expansion in the Indian and Pacific oceans.
甚至是德國這個與中國貿易往來最多的歐洲政策推動者,也已經表現出更多不耐煩的跡象。德國外交大臣海克斯·馬斯(Heiko Maas)也為捷克說話,警告中國外長王毅「不能在這裡威脅人。」次日,德國就宣布了一項新戰略,加入了關於中國在印度洋和太平洋進行軍事擴張的地緣政治鬥爭。
The German chancellor, Angela Merkel, said on Monday that the European Union remained committed to the principle of multilateral cooperation. She said Europe was open to dealing with China, despite the political differences that are increasingly overshadowing the economic agenda.
德國總理安哥拉·梅克爾(Angela Merkel)週一表示,歐盟仍然致力於多邊合作的原則。她說歐洲願向中國開放貿易,儘管雙方的政治分歧的陰影正不斷覆蓋經濟議程。
“In certain areas problems have increased,” she said after two hours of discussions with Mr. Xi. “We have to acknowledge that. But we are also going to attempt to find solutions, even if we are going to crawl forward bit by bit.”
「在某些領域,問題有所增加,」在與習近平進行了兩小時的討論後,她表示。「我們必須承認這一點。但我們也將嘗試尋找解決方案,即使我們的前進舉步維艱。」
Ms. Merkel’s predilection not to mix politics and economics in dealing with China has come under growing pressure, as it has with Russia over President Vladimir V. Putin’s repressive behavior.
梅克爾與中國打交道時不把政治和經濟混為一談的傾向遭遇了越來越大的壓力,就像她不介意總統弗拉基米爾·V·普丁(Vladimir V. Putin)的鎮壓行為而與俄羅斯打交道一樣。
Ms. Merkel had originally planned Monday’s meeting as a summit in Leipzig with Mr. Xi and all of the union’s leaders that would culminate in the signing of an investment treaty that has been years in the making. The in-person summit was derailed by the pandemic. The hoped-for agreement stalled over China’s refusal to make meaningful concessions that would open its domestic market to European companies.
梅克爾原本計劃將週一的會議當作與習近平和其他所有歐盟領導人的萊比錫峰會,以最終簽署一項醞釀多年的投資協議。面對面峰會因大流行取消。由於中國拒絕做出有意義的讓步,向歐洲企業開放其國內市場,期待中的協議陷入了僵局。
8月25日,義大利外長路易吉·迪馬約迎接中國外長王毅。王毅此行訪問五個國家以求修復受損的關係,義大利是其中之一。
8月25日,義大利外長路易吉·迪馬約迎接中國外長王毅。王毅此行訪問五個國家以求修復受損的關係,義大利是其中之一。 Pool photo by Massimo Percossi
“With market access it is not a question of meeting halfway, but rebalancing the asymmetry,” said Ursula von der Leyen, president of the European Commission, who also participated in Monday’s meetings. “We need China to move on those issues.”
「在市場准入方面,問題不是妥協,而是不對等的再平衡,」也參與了週一會議的歐盟委員會主席烏爾蘇拉·馮德萊恩(Ursula von der Leyen)說。「我們需要中國在這些問題上採取行動。」
It is not clear that China is willing to do so, especially as its economy has begun churning again while others are still staggering from the pandemic. Mr. Xi remains committed to a heavy state role in the economy that has for years delayed pledges to open up important sectors to foreign competition. On issues involving human rights, he also bluntly told the Europeans that his country does not need lectures, according to Xinhua, China’s state-run news agency.
尚不清楚中國是否願意這樣做,尤其是當中國經濟開始重新啟動,而其他國家仍在這場大流行中掙扎時。習近平仍然致力於在經濟中讓國家發揮強大作用,多年來一直是這一點在推遲向外國競爭者開放重要行業的承諾。據中國官方通訊社新華社報導,在與人權有關的議題上,他也直截了當地告訴歐洲人,他的國家不需要說教。
廣告
That sort of tone has exacerbated tensions. “Everything has changed after the pandemic, but they are still using this very rigid and tough hegemonic diplomatic method,” said Wu Qiang, an independent political analyst in Beijing.
這種語調加劇了緊張局勢。北京的獨立政治分析人士吳強表示,「大流行發生後,每一件事都改變了,但他們仍在使用這種非常僵硬的霸權主義外交手段」。
The mounting tensions spilled into public when Mr. Wang visited five countries ahead of Monday’s summit: Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, France and Germany. The tour was widely seen as an effort to mend fences, but he faced a flurry of criticism instead, and stirred even more controversy of his own.
當王毅在週一的峰會前訪問義大利、荷蘭、挪威、法國和德國這五個國家時,日益加劇的緊張局勢向公眾蔓延。這次訪問被廣泛認為是為了修復關係而做出的努力,但他卻面臨一系列批評,並引發了有關自己的更多爭議。
In Norway, he warned against awarding the Nobel Peace Prize to protesters in Hong Kong. He implied that doing so could again plunge bilateral relations into a deep freeze, as happened when the prize committee, which is independent of the Norwegian government, gave the award to the Chinese pro-democracy dissident Liu Xiaobo in 2010.
在挪威,他警告不要將諾貝爾和平獎頒發給香港抗議者。他暗示,這樣做使再次雙邊關係再次陷入冷凍,正如評審委員會在2010年將獎項頒給中國親民主異見者劉曉波一樣。諾貝爾委員會獨立於挪威政府。
In Rome, Paris and Berlin, he faced sharp questions about China’s new security law in Hong Kong, which he was told violated Beijing’s pledges to respect the territory’s autonomy and democracy. Mr. Wang responded defiantly, echoing China’s position that Hong Kong is an internal matter, not subject to discussion, like the crackdown on Muslims in the far western province of Xinjiang.
在羅馬、巴黎和柏林,面對有關中國在香港的新國安法等尖銳問題,他被告知,這違反了北京尊重該地區自治權和民主的承諾。王毅做出了呼應中國立場的激烈回應,稱香港議題是內部事務,不是可被討論的議題,正如該國在遙遠的西部省份新疆對穆斯林地鎮壓一樣。
9月3日,台北,捷克參議院議長米洛什·維斯特奇爾在與台灣總統蔡英文(右二)會面時講話。他的此次訪問受到中國的批評。
9月3日,台北,捷克參議院議長米洛什·維斯特奇爾在與台灣總統蔡英文(右二)會面時講話。他的此次訪問受到中國的批評。 Taiwan Presidential Office, via Associated Press
It was the Chinese official’s response on Taiwan, however, that rankled most. The president of the Czech Senate, Milos Vystrcil, arrived in Taiwan in the middle of Mr. Wang’s visit, leading a delegation of business executives to the self-governing island that China claims as its territory.
不過,最令人惱火的還是這名中國官員對於台灣議題的回應。捷克參議院議長米洛什·維斯特奇爾(Milos Vystrcil)率領一個由企業高管組成的代表團,前往這個中國聲稱是其領土的自治島嶼,在王毅展開訪問時抵達台灣。
“The Chinese government and Chinese people won’t take a laissez-faire attitude or sit idly by and will make him pay a heavy price for his shortsighted behavior and political opportunism,” Mr. Wang said.
「中國政府和中國人民不會放任自流,也不會袖手旁觀,勢必讓他們為自己的短視付出代價,」王毅說。
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The threat, delivered on German soil, might once have been ignored, but in today’s climate it prompted an unusual display of European solidarity. This type of “Wolf Warrior” diplomacy, named after two popular Chinese nationalistic films, has come to dominate China’s relations with Europe, and it has done much to alienate leaders and the general public alike.
這個在德國領土上發出的威脅過去可能被忽略,但在當下的環境中,它引發了歐洲不同尋常的團結。這種以兩部中國流行的民族主義電影命名的「戰狼」外交,已經主宰了中國與歐洲之間的關係,並疏遠了與歐洲領導人和普通民眾的關係。
According to a survey published last week by the European Council on Foreign Relations, only 7 percent of Europeans believe that China is a useful ally in the fight against the pandemic; 62 percent view the country in a negative light.
據歐洲對外關係委員會(European Council on Foreign Relations)上週公布的一項調查,僅有7%的歐洲人認為,中國在抗擊疫情上是一個有幫助的盟友,62%對該國持負面看法。
“It’s very alienating, but they don’t seem to be wanting to back down,” said Lucrezia Poggetti, an analyst with the Mercator Institute of China Studies in Berlin, citing controversies set off by blustery warnings delivered by Chinese ambassadors on Twitter. “If anything, they’ve been doubling down.”
「這非常不友好,但他們看起來不願意退步,」柏林墨卡托中國研究中心的分析師盧可瑞(Lucrezia Poggetti)表示,並援引了由中國大使在Twitter上發表的強勢警告引發的爭議。「有的只是進一步加碼。」